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Working Class, U. For many years he was the consulting editor for Humanity Books' Revolutionary Studies series. Customer Reviews Average Review. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Textbooks. Add to Wishlist. USD Ship This Item — This item is available online through Marketplace sellers.

Short History of the U.S. Working Class by Paul Le Blanc

Temporarily Out of Stock Online Please check back later for updated availability. Overview Le Blanc blends economic, social, intellectual, cultural, and political history into a compelling, coherent, colorful, and gripping narrative that includes the views of key figures of U. Le Blanc's broad analytical framework highlights issues of class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Most of these pertain to the distribution of value, not to its production. A value theory of imperialism must distinguish between the two, and moreover recognize that the source of imperialist profits is not to be found in any form of monopoly—however big a role monopolistic corporations may play in helping to generate these conditions—but in super-exploitation, which brings us back to the oppression of nations.


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The riddle can be solved by focusing on the essence of the matter, not the form the export of capital being the form. Both of these must be expressed in terms of the law of value developed by Karl Marx in Capital. First, each of the nations used by Marx for his comparisons—England, Germany, and Russia—were rival oppressor nations, each of them busy acquiring colonial empires of their own. The significance of this last point will be discussed below.

The Industrial Revolution (18-19th Century)

It is nonetheless one of the most important factors in stemming the tendency for the rate of profit to fall. Wage-arbitrage-driven globalization of production does not correspond to absolute surplus value. Nor does it correspond to relative surplus value. Necessary labor is not, in the main, being reduced thorough the application of new technology. Indeed, outsourcing is often seen as alternative to investment in new technology. It does, however, point to super-exploitation.

Short History of the U.S. Working Class

This is not because the southern working class produces less value, but because it is more oppressed and more exploited. Analysis of the empirics of neoliberal globalization reveals global labor arbitrage, arising from the higher degree of exploitation prevalent in low-wage nations, to be its fundamental driving force. Here is the only possible solid foundation for a renaissance of Marxism on a world scale. This central finding also allows us to see the place of the neoliberal era in history.

Ethnic Coalitions and Antagonisms

In Grundrisse Marx comments,. When capitalism reached its adult stage and took full control over the production process, competition flourished and the inner laws of capital became expressed most fully. How does this chronology relate to the three forms of surplus value increase discussed in this article? In immature capitalism, increasing absolute surplus value—extending the working day to and beyond physical limits—was predominant. In the neoliberal era the increasingly predominant form of the capital-labor relation is the global labor arbitrage, i.

The proletarians of the semicolonial countries are its first victims, but the broad masses of working people in the imperialist countries also face destitution. Expanded super-exploitation of new, youthful, and female proletarians of low-wage countries rescued capitalism from the hole in which it found itself in the s.

Now, together with workers in the imperialist countries, it is their mission to dig another hole—the grave in which to bury capitalism and thereby secure the future of human civilization. Dear Reader, we make this and other articles available for free online to serve those unable to afford or access the print edition of Monthly Review.

A short history of the U.S. working class : from colonial times to the Twenty-First Century

If you read the magazine online and can afford a print subscription, we hope you will consider purchasing one. Please visit the MR store for subscription options. Thank you very much. John Smith teaches international political economy at Kingston University in London.

Introduction to cultures and religions for the study of AP Art History

Chart 1. Chart 3. Global Industrial Workforce.

In an era of excess supply, companies lack pricing leverage as never before. As such, businesses must be unrelenting in their search for new efficiencies. Not surprisingly, the primary focus of such efforts is labor, representing the bulk of production costs in the developed world ….