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Stanislaw Krajewski. The focus here is, first, on the consequences and interpretations of it in the philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of mind, and logic, and second, on a discussion of attempts to apply the theorem in areas of the humanities, such as literary criticism, social studies, and the theory of law.

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Since this book is not a mathematical textbook, summaries, rather than complete technical presentations, are provided. In addition to standard topics some new developments are mentioned. Then new versions of Lucas' argument given by Penrose, and , are described and also found defective.

Epstein for help in preparing the English version of this article. Such arguments assume that a theorem-proving machine is equivalent to human mathematical powers, even in the realm of elementary arithmetic.

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The Theorem on Inconsistency states that under those assumptions the set of values of F is inconsistent. Loosely put, the former result shows that Lucas is inconsistent, and the latter that Penrose is unsound. As well, an outline of his philosophical views is given, including his Platonism, his Leibniz-style monadology, and admiration for Husserl, along with his theological views. Specifically, his instability is related to the special role of logic and mathematics in his vision of a scientific philosophy.

But we now know that it matters how the assertion of consistency is expressed. Another standard consequence of the Incompleteness Theorem is expressed by saying that there is no universal, effectively presented, mathematical theory. Still, it seems that there is no finite description of the natural numbers that we could formulate and give to a computer to make it behave as if it understood our notion of number.

It is suggested that no conclusive argument is possible for the latter issue. Examples are given from Sokal and Bricmont, and other sources. The theorem has also become, not without good reasons, one of the symbols of a scientific paradigm shift or of limitations in the development of the Euclidean and Cartesian views: In the Twentieth Century we gradually abandoned the idea of the possibility of a complete, certain, absolute description of the world.

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G1 Every consistent mathematical theory that is effectively presented and which includes elementary arithmetic is incomplete i. G2 No computer that produces only mathematical truths can produce all such truths. G3 Mathematics is inexhaustible; it is undefinable by an algorithm. G4 Mathematical truth is not reducible to provability in any given system. G5 In every strict description of mathematics something is missing.

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G6 There is no effectively presented theory of the whole of mathematics or even arithmetic. The above limitations refer to objective mathematics. If such a theory existed we could not understand it.

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G8 No computer producing only mathematical truths can produce the truth that it is consistent. G9 The consistency of mathematics must be assumed, taken as a matter of faith.

A2 There are unprovable truths. A3 Consistency and completeness are incompatible. A4 There are sentences that are provably neither provable nor refutable. Thus it can only be true, but unprovable.

Wang , p. Even Rodych , p. As will be seen, evidence can be put forward for this claim. In Rodych , p.

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Though not needed in order to derive the undecidability of P in PM, as will be seen in the next section, this interpretation is needed in order to prove the incompleteness of P. In the following of the first paragraph an argument is given for the thesis that P is true and unprovable by reducing the negation of both conjuncts of this thesis to absurdity. In the last but one sentence of paragraph 1 Wittgenstein hints at the reductio of the second conjunct of the thesis that P is true and unprovable i.

In detail, the argumentation runs as follows:. A similar, though not identical proof sketch is given by Wittgenstein in MS , pp. Instead, he is relying on purely recursive definitions in short: DEF.