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On 9 September, forces of the U. Clark , expecting little resistance, land. Shell projectile A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot. Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a spotting charge is used, it was called a " bombshell ", but "shell" has come to be unambiguous in a military context. All explosive- and incendiary-filled projectiles for mortars, were called grenades, derived from the pomegranate , so called because the many-seeded fruit suggested the powder-filled, fragmenting bomb, or from the similarity of shape.

Words cognate with grenade are still used for an artillery or mortar projectile in some European languages. Shells are large-caliber projectiles fired by artillery, combat vehicles, warships. Shells have the shape of a cylinder topped by an ogive-shaped nose for good aerodynamic performance with a tapering base, but some specialized types are quite different.

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Solid cannonballs did not need a fuse , but hollow munitions filled with something such as gunpowder to fragment the ball, needed a fuse, either impact or time. Percussion fuses with a spherical projectile presented a challenge because there was no way of ensuring that the impact mechanism contacted the target. Therefore, shells needed a time fuse, ignited before or during firing and burned until the shell reached its target; the earliest record of shells being used in combat was by the Republic of Venice at Jadra in Shells with fuses were used at the siege of St Boniface in Corsica ; these were two hollowed hemispheres of bronze held together by an iron hoop.

Written evidence for early explosive shells in China appears in the early Ming Dynasty Chinese military manual Huolongjing , compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen sometime before the latter's death, a preface added by Jiao in ; as described in their book, these hollow, gunpowder-packed shells were made of cast iron. At least since the 16th century grenades made of ceramics or glass were in use in Central Europe. A hoard of several hundred ceramic grenades were discovered during building works in front of a bastion of the Bavarian city of Ingolstadt, Germany dated to the 17th century.

Lots of the grenades igniters. Most the grenades were intentionally dumped in the moat of the bastion before the year An early problem was that there was no means of measuring the time to detonation — reliable fuses did not yet exist and the burning time of the powder fuse was subject to considerable trial and error. Early powder burning fuses had to be loaded fuse down to be ignited by firing or a portfire put down the barrel to light the fuse.

Other shells were wrapped in bitumen cloth, which would ignite during the firing and in turn ignite a powder fuse. Shells came into regular use in the 16th century, for example a English mortar shell was filled with'wildfire'. By the 18th century, it was known that the fuse toward the muzzle could be lit by the flash through the windage between the shell and the barrel. At about this time, shells began to be employed for horizontal fire from howitzers with a small propelling charge and, in , experiments demonstrated that they could be used from guns with heavier charges.

The use of exploding shells from field artillery became commonplace from early in the 19th century. Until the mid 19th century, shells remained as simple exploding spheres that used gunpowder, set off by a slow burning fuse, they were made of cast iron, but bronze, lead and glass shell casings were experimented with. The word bomb encompassed them at the time, as heard in the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner , although today that sense of bomb is obsolete; the thickness of the metal body was about a sixth of their diameter and they were about two thirds the weight of solid shot of the same caliber.

To ensure that shells were loaded with their fuses toward the muzzle, they were attached to wooden bottoms called sabots. In , a committee of British artillery officers recognized that they were essential stores and in Britain standardized sabot thickness as a half inch; the sabot was intended to reduce jamming during loading. Despite the use of exploding shell, the use of smoothbore cannons firing spherical projectiles of shot remained the dominant artillery method until the s.

The mid 19th century saw a revolution in artillery, with the introduction of the first practical rifled breech loading weapons. The new methods resulted in the reshaping of the spherical shell into its modern recognizable cylindro-conoidal form; this shape improved the in-flight stability of the projectile and meant that the primitive time fuzes could be replaced with the percussion fuze situated in the nose of the shell.

The new shape meant that further, armor-piercing designs could be used. During the 20th Century, shells became streamlined.

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In World War I , ogives were two circular radius head - the curve was a segment of a circle having a radius of twice the shell caliber. After that war, ogive shapes became more elongated. From the s, higher quality steels were introduced by some countries for their HE shells, this enabled thinner shell walls with less weight of metal and hence a greater weight of explosive.

Ogives were further elongated to improve their ballistic performance. Advances in metallurgy in the industrial era allowed for the construction of rifled breech-loading guns that could fire at a much greater muzzle velocity. Nancy, France Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle , the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine , the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of , inhabitants at the census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France ; the population of the city of Nancy proper was , in The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine.


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Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture.

Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city. After Stanislaus' death in , the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution , a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In , Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades.

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Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from Third Army in September , at the Battle of Nancy. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle ; the Marne—Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe.

Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about m higher than the city center, situated at m above mean sea level ; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from to , placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine.

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However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from to while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the " Grand Est " region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area.

Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent. Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra.


  • New Vanguard: M10 and M36 Tank Destroyers 1942-53 57 by Steven J. Zaloga (2002, Paperback).
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  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September Main article: M39 Armored Utility Vehicle. Main article: Tank destroyer. Tanks portal. Tank Overhaul. Series 1. Military Channel. Armored Thunderbolt. Germany's Panther Tank. Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 20 January Zaloga, M18 Hellcat Tank Destroyer —97 , pp. Zaloga 20 March M18 Hellcat Tank Destroyer — Bloomsbury Publishing.

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    Doyle, David Zaloga, Steven J Armored Thunderbolt: The U. Stackpole Books. M10 and M36 Tank Destroyers — Osprey Publishing New Vanguard American armored fighting vehicles of World War II. M26 Pershing. M2 half-track car M3 half-track personnel carrier M5 half-track M9 half-track. American armored fighting vehicle production during World War II. Hidden categories: CS1 French-language sources fr CS1 errors: deprecated parameters CS1 errors: markup CS1 Serbian-language sources sr All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from June Articles to be expanded from September All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from February Articles with unsourced statements from February United States.