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University of Michigan, USA. New Delhi: Penguin. Socioeconomic status and health: the potential role of environmental risk exposure, Annual Review of Public Health, 23, Journal of Economic Literature, 30, — Discussion Papers. GOLI S. GOLI, S.
Socioeconomic Progress across the major Indian states: Converging and Diverging. Trends in health and health inequalities among major states of India: assessing progress through convergence models. Health Economics, Policy and Law. DOI: What is the cause of the decline in maternal mortality in India? Evidences from time series and cross-sectional analyses.
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ROSS, J. ROY, C. V, TAM N. SEN, A. Expanded edition with a substantial annexe by James E. Foster and A. Sen, ET AL. Health, 3, Study in Family Planning 31 In Bulatao R. Tirana grew fastest, by The other districts where population increased are located within the triangle of high density portrayed on fig.
The Challenges of the End of the Demographic Transition
The areas of greatest population loss -and therefore of heaviest out-migration- correlate with those of lowest density: the mountainous areas in the North and in the South. In general the. In the South the migratory losses are reinforced by lower fertility, the birth rate here being considerably lower than in northern districts, where the highest figures in the country are recorded. For those who are not resident in the same district, three possibilities exist: migration to another district, emigration, or death between the censuses.
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The overall pattern fig. Otherwise, we observe the same three-way division of the country as remarked on above. How can we interpret the patterns portrayed in figure 2? Two key points can be made. First, there is some historical continuity with the pre period, except of course as regards emigration. High rates of population increase in the North were driven by high natural growth associated with the survival in this part of Albania of traditional cultural values based on patriarchy and large.
In the central districts, planned economic expansion and some spontaneous migration led to the highest rates of population increase, despite the fact that the major towns had low rates of natural increase. Finally, the Southern districts, home to most of the ethnic Greeks in Albania, had low levels of overall population growth, deriving both from their specific demographic characteristics low fertility, high longevity and from their propensity to migrate to other parts of Albania.
The Southern districts had been the main contributors to the significant industrial migrations of the s, leading to a depleted age structure and to lower crude fertility. The second key point of interpretation of figure 2 relates to the different regional linkages between internal and international migration. Although the census data do not provide a comprehensive platform of evidence, the census commentary distinguishes three internal- international migration types, with selected examples INSTAT, , Recent fieldwork in Albania coordinated by the author confirms the validity of this typology.
The Central region, as we saw from figure 2, is a group of districts with high and increasing population density, more urbanised than the rest of the country, with high rates of positive population change between and Population losses from death and out-migration fig. The main contributor to population gain is internal migration. The fact that overall population change fig. In the North heavy losses due to out-migration were recorded. In these zones, internal migrants have been able to settle on land whose legal ownership has not been determined -for example former state farms or abandoned industrial plants.
These peri-urban settlements have sprung up without any planning and so often lack essential. Finally, in the South, another migration regime exists. Here there has been heavy inter-censal loss of population in most districts. The majority of this loss has been through emigration, rather than internal migration. Given the proximity of the border, emigration to Greece has been particularly heavy, but outflows have also taken place to Italy and other overseas destinations.
Povery and migration : a synthesis. However, it is a moot point how much of this poverty was inherited from the austerity of the communist regime's economic and social system, and how much derives from new forms of poverty and exclusion produced by the country's shambolic transition to a free market economy. Certainly the economic and cultural problems of the transition should not be minimised. Despite mass emigration, the unemployment rate more than doubled between the two censuses, rising from 9.
Moreover the collapse of the communist state was accompanied by the complete erosion of its egalitarian ethics, and the consequent re-emergence of old gender-related categories of inequality and processes of marginalisation. In contemporary Albania's chaotic and rapidly urbanising market economy, both men and women, young and old, are experiencing uncertainty about their respective roles, and a consequent loss of self-esteem.
Families now include fluid household structures, varying according to location and the ages, statuses, and migration histories of the members. Many family survival strategies incorporate both internal and international migration: which are not simple migration alternatives. So, both internal and international migration, sometimes combined, constitute the main strategy of survival for impoverished Albanian households in the post-communist period.
In their large-scale interview survey, which covered migrants, non-migrants and returnees, K. Barjaba and L.
Perrone reported the widespread view of emigration as the only way out of the country's economic and social chaos. In interviews and. Emigration is the leading coping mechanism because its financial benefits are so clear to everyone.